Indian cartoonist could be jailed for cartoons about India’s supreme court

first_img Follow the news on India India is ranked 142nd out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2020 World Press Freedom Index. to go further RSF demands release of detained Indian journalist Siddique Kappan, hospitalised with Covid-19 The supreme court gave the go-ahead on 18 December for contempt of court proceedings against Rachita Taneja in connection with three cartoons on her @SanitaryPanels Twitter page, where she has been commenting on Indian politics for the past six years. RSF_en “We call on the supreme court’s judges to drop the absurd charges they have allowed to be brought against Rachita Taneja, who just exercised her right to freedom of expression as guaranteed by article 19 of the 1950 constitution,” said Daniel Bastard, the head of RSF’s Asia-Pacific desk. “It is very shocking to see India’s highest court stoop to harassing a cartoonist on the pretext of a spurious contempt of court case when the cartoons were completely inoffensive.” Innocuous March 3, 2021 Find out more April 27, 2021 Find out more IndiaAsia – Pacific Condemning abusesOnline freedoms InternetFreedom of expressionJudicial harassment News Help by sharing this information Contempt of court proceedings are increasingly used to silence journalists and commentators who refer critically to the judicial system. Those targeted have included the political commentator and comedian Kunal Kamra, who was accused of contempt in December over a series of satirical tweets about the supreme court. Posted on 7 August, 11 November and 12 November respectively, the three cartoons are very innocuous. The first parodies an exchange of favours between a judge and Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The second shows the flag of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh – the Hindu nationalist militia of which the BJP is a political offshoot – ­flying over the supreme court building. And the third refers to a supreme court decision concerning a journalist with the pro-BJP Republic TV channel. Taneja has been asked to submit a written defence which the court will examine on 29 January. If found guilty, she could be sentenced to up to six months in prison.center_img IndiaAsia – Pacific Condemning abusesOnline freedoms InternetFreedom of expressionJudicial harassment As RSF reported at the time, Shillong Times newspaper editor Patricia Mukhim and publisher Shobha Chaudhuri were each fined 200,000 rupees (2,600 euros) in March 2019 for contempt of court because of an article drawing attention to a court directive on benefits for retired judges in Meghalaya, the northeastern state where they are based. Organisation Receive email alerts News June 10, 2021 Find out more In rural India, journalists face choice between covering pandemic and survival News The proceedings are the result of a complaint filed by Aditya Kashyap, a member of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)’s student wing, claiming that Taneja had “shaken the public trust and confidence in the judicial system of our constitutional democracy by directly attacking and making insinuations against the Supreme Court of India.” News January 11, 2021 Indian cartoonist could be jailed for cartoons about India’s supreme court Following last month’s Indian supreme court decision to authorize a “contempt” case against a New Delhi-based cartoonist over a series of cartoons satirising the court, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) urges the judges in charge of the case to respect the right to free speech as proclaimed in India’s constitution and to dismiss these absurd proceedings. India: RSF denounces “systemic repression” of Manipur’s media For three innocuous drawings, Rachita Taneja is accused of having “shaken the public trust and confidence in the judicial system of [India’s] constitutional democracy” (image : R. Tanija). last_img read more

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Isobar enhances disc brake performance

first_imgINTRO: German Railway’s ICE3 high-speed trains will have just two brake discs per axle, compared to four on earlier ICE generations. Use of advanced brake pads with an improved contact pattern offers lower noise and a 50% increase in energy absorptionBYLINE: Dr-Ing Xaver WirthSenior Manager, Design & DevelopmentKnorr-Bremse SfS GmbHTHE DEVELOPMENT OF friction brakes for high-speed trains suffers from one fundamental law of physics: the kinetic energy of a vehicle increases with the square of its velocity. With relatively heavy trains running in the 250 to 300 km/h speed band, a very large amount of kinetic energy must be absorbed every time the train slows or stops.Modern practice is to use electro-dynamic braking for most, if not all, service brake applications, and the ability to do this has been boosted by the current trend towards distributed traction drives, as on German Railway’s ICE3, with a greater number of motored axles spread through the train. However, it remains a condition of high-speed operation that, in the event of any failure of the electric brakes, during emergency brake applications virtually all of the energy will have to be absorbed by the friction disc brakes. Friction brakes must also absorb the bulk of the energy on loco-hauled vehicles, where dynamic braking is not available.Today’s state-of-the-art brake discs for high-energy applications are assembled from steel hubs mounted on the axle, and friction rings connected to the hub in a manner that allows them to expand as they heat up during brake applications. The friction rings are mainly made from steel or ductile cast iron, such as nodular cast iron.The brake pads normally used with these discs are made from organically-bonded composition materials, which can be pressed into large-area pad halves at reasonable cost (Fig 1a). However, these pads only provide an approximately uniform surface pressure and good contact pattern as long as their hardness and modulus of elasticity remain below specific limits. The contact pattern needs to be kept as constant as possible, so that the frictional energy, in the form of heat, is fed evenly into the brake disc. Otherwise the friction area will become overloaded in certain areas with a resultant risk of cracking.This is the crux of the problem: the higher the thermal loading capacity of an organic brake pad, the higher its modulus of elasticity, and therefore the greater the potential damage that can be done to the disc.Sinter pads harderMetal sinter pads are capable of withstanding much higher temperatures, being harder by a power of ten when compared with organic pads. Fig 1b shows a typical sinter brake pad with separate friction elements attached to an intermediate pad support which provides for a more or less flexible action. With a nominal size of 40000 mm2, this pad offers a contact pattern which is just about tolerable on brake discs of heat-treated steel at medium levels of braking energy.At high braking power levels, a poor contact pattern will result in local overheating of the friction surfaces, restricting the performance of the brake disc. Fig 3a (p480) is a thermographic picture of a disc during a brake application from 330 km/h using the sinter brake pads which are common today. It is noticeable that the disc shows hot spots at certain angles, with relatively cold areas in between. In the higher-temperature zones, thermal expansion of the disc results in the development of ’high spots’ which then receive a disproportionately large share of the energy because surface pressure is higher here than in the cooler ’valleys’ between. If the yield point of the disc material is exceeded, residual tensile stress will develop after the disc has cooled, leading to the formation of so-called heat cracks.Depending on the application and on material behaviour, heat cracks are only tolerable up to a specific length. Otherwise the forces of motion could cause the disc to break up, with fragments projected in all directions! Thus the risk of crack formation, along with the normal wear criteria, is a determining factor for the maximum permissible loading of a brake disc.For this reason, today’s TGV and ICE trainsets are equipped with four discs per axle (right). This results in a heavy unsprung weight penalty; the brake discs on an ICE1 trainset total 520 kg per axle, whilst the four actuating calipers in the suspended section of the bogie add another 260 kg.Lower weight and higher speedFor future vehicle generations, vehicle manufacturers are looking for lighter brake equipment able to operate at higher speeds. Knorr-Bremse decided that these specifications could not be met adequately by simply upgrading the conventional technology. Innovative solutions were required.The first development was the aluminium-ceramic brake disc (RG 6.95 p357) which is now in production for a wide range of applications. These discs have been in use on the prototype København S-bane EMUs since early 1996, and an ICE1 trainset fully equipped with aluminium discs has been in operation since January 1997. Disc brakes using fibre-composite materials will be ready for series production in a few years. But equally important has been the development of the innovative Isobar brake pad, which offers a considerable reduction in weight as well as enhanced performance.The name Isobar reflects the aim of equalising pressure at all points on the disc. The main objectives of the development project were:last_img read more

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Ibrahimovic inspires AC Milan to victory in first start

first_img Promoted ContentBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do2020 Tattoo Trends: Here’s What You’ll See This Year6 Interesting Ways To Make Money With A Drone13 kids at weddings who just don’t give a hootThese Hilariously Creative Shower Curtains Will Make Your Day9 Facts You Should Know Before Getting A Tattoo8 Things You Didn’t Know About CoffeeWhat Happens When You Eat Eggs Every Single Day?Best & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever MadePortuguese Street Artist Creates Hyper-Realistic 3D Graffiti7 Mind-Boggling Facts About Black Holes The visitors had moved ahead on Saturday through Rafael Leao’s deflected effort, his first goal since September, which arrived just 32 seconds after the restart.Cagliari remain sixth in the table but have lost four straight Serie A matches and are on their worst run since October 2017.The only chance in a quiet first half hour was Theo Hernandez’s shot from a tight angle that was saved by the legs of Robin Olsen.Milan almost broke through when Ibrahimovic’s header was touched onto the upright by Olsen and they came close again from the resulting corner, which was flicked on by Alessio Romagnoli to a stretching Leao, who could not convert at the far post.Cagliari rarely threatened but an audacious Nahitan Nandez lob from the right touchline had to be saved by a back-tracking Gianluigi Donnarumma.Milan made an ideal start to the second half when Samu Castillejo’s lofted pass found Leao, who controlled neatly before seeing his shot deflect off defender Fabio Pisacane and loop in over a helpless Olsen. With Milan having gone three straight games without scoring, the 38-year-old netted the decisive second goal with an excellent finish after 64 minutes. Loading… center_img Zlatan Ibrahimovic inspired Milan to victory on his first start since returning to the club, netting in a 2-0 Serie A win at Cagliari.Advertisement Read Also: Zlatan Ibrahimovic statue vandalised againMidway through the half, Ibrahimovic sealed victory as he swept a first-time, left-footed effort into the far corner from 12 yards after latching on to Hernandez’s delivery from the left.Ibrahimovic thought he had a second late on but was denied by an offside flag having headed in a cross from Ismael Bennacer, Donnarumma not having a save to make in the closing stages as Milan held on comfortably.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 last_img read more

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